In making portfolio, especially design portfolio, it is necessary to consider several principles applied to the elements of design. These principles help to bring those design elements together into one design. How one applies these principles determines how successful a design may be.
When all elements are in agreement, a design is considered unified. No individual part is viewed as more important than the whole design. A good balance between unity and variety must be established to avoid a chaotic or a lifeless design.
It is a state of equalized tension and equilibrium, which may not always be calm. This principle can be divided into two: symmetrical balance and asymmetrical balance. Symmetrical balance has ratio of 50:50, while asymmetrical balance produces an informal balance that is attention attracting and dynamic.
A good design contains elements that lead the reader through each element in order of its significance. The type and images should be expressed starting from most important to the least important.
- Scale / Proportion
Using the relative size of elements against each other can attract attention to a focal point. When elements are designed larger than life, scale is being used to show drama.
- Dominance / Emphasis
Dominance is created by contrasting size, positioning, color, style, or shape. The focal point should dominate the design with scale and contrast without sacrificing the unity of the whole.
- Similarity and contrast
Planning a consistent and similar design is an important aspect of a designer’s work to make their focal point visible. Too much similarity is boring but without similarity important elements will not exist and an image without contrast is uneventful so the key is to find the balance between similarity and contrast.
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